Questions often arise, in the fashion world, on whether the aforementioned colours can be worn together. They are called neutral colours, and so allegedly can be worn with any other colour. I am sceptical to say they can, however, sometimes there are exceptions.
The rule to follow is: never wear all three at the same time, and try not to wear black with blue. The evidence for this is based on my experiences with people at university; where they chuck these colours together willy- nilly because they believe the university nightclub scene does not judge. This is a folly and their partnering of navy shoes, with black jeans, and light brown shoes is disastrous.
The main exception to this is dark navy upper wear, black trousers, and dark brown shoes. This was a match I donned commonly whilst at sixth form, but nowadays one does not see the need to.
Further evidencing this is suits. You would not wear a black suit with a brown pair of shoes, or a brown belt; without looking foolish. Zac Efron has had to learn this the hard way at the Toronto International Film Festival in 2012. He sported a black suit and tie, with brown shoes and no belt! Now I am a fan of ZEfron, but who the heck wears a suit without a belt, unless one has braces? I do hope he had a stern word with his stylist after this, or, if he did not have one, invested.
So to summarise this brief discussion on a often overlooked rule, only wear these colours together if you have to. And definitely do not do a ZEfron!